[Biography] Here’s Johnny!: A Biography of Jack Nicholson

Julio Tanton

Early Life

On April 22,1937, John “Jack” Joseph Nicholson, who will become known as one of the greatest actors of his generation and famous for his often dark-themed portrayals of neurotic characters with his iconic grin, was born in Neptune, New Jersey.

Nicholson’s father left his mother before Jack was born, and he grew up believing that his grandmother was his mother and his mother was his older sister. Nicholson didn’t learn the truth until the early 1970s, long after they were both dead, when he found out from a reporter then working on a story about the now-famous actor. After high school, Nicholson won a scholarship to the University of Delaware, but he decided to try acting instead. After moving to Los Angeles, he landed a job in the animation department of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. He began studying acting at the Players Ring Theater and won a few small parts in television shows.

Acting Career

In 1958, Nicholson played a troubled teenager in his first film, a low-budget horror flick called The Cry Baby Killer. This was the first of many appearances in horror and biker films and other second-rate genre movies that Nicholson would make over the course of the next decade. He also tried his hand at screenwriting, penning scripts for The Trip (1967), directed by B-movie king Roger Corman, and Head (1968), which starred the musical group the Monkees. Nicholson married the actress Sandra Knight in 1962, but the marriage lasted only five years.

Nicholson finally got his big acting break in 1967, when the actor Rip Torn dropped out of Easy Rider (1968) and Nicholson was able to step into his place. Playing an alcoholic lawyer opposite Peter Fonda and Dennis Hopper’s drug-dealing bikers, Nicholson stole his scenes and picked up an Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actor.

After the success of Easy Rider, Nicholson’s career was on the fast track. As a talented musician stuck working on an oil rig in Five Easy Pieces (1970), he turned in another Oscar-nominated performance, this time as Best Actor. After two more nominations–for The Last Detail (1973) and Roman Polanski’s noir thriller Chinatown (1974)–Nicholson took home the Best Actor Oscar for One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest, in which he played an inmate in a mental asylum. The film was the first to sweep all five major Oscar categories: Best Actor, Best Actress (Louise Fletcher as the sadistic Nurse Ratched), Best Screenplay, Best Director (Milos Forman) and Best Picture.

Now at the top of the A-list, Nicholson appeared sporadically in films over the rest of the 1970s. He emerged with a string of notable performances in the 1980s, including Stanley Kubrick’s The Shining (1980) and Oscar-nominated turns in Reds (1981), Terms of Endearment (1983) and Ironweed (1987). Showcasing his more campy side, he played Satan in The Witches of Eastwick (1987) and gave an outrageously over-the-top performance as the Joker in Batman (1989), both box-office hits. Playing a hard-line Marine colonel in A Few Good Men (1992), Nicholson racked up his tenth Oscar nomination, a record for a male actor.

In 1997, Nicholson and co-star Helen Hunt both won Oscars for their leading performances in the quirky comedy-drama As Good as It Gets. Still at the top of his game, Nicholson continued to appear frequently in leading roles in films throughout the next decade, earning praise (and a 12th Oscar nomination) for his uncharacteristically understated performance in About Schmidt (2002); indulging his softer side in the romantic comedy Something’s Gotta Give (2004), opposite Diane Keaton; and headlining the stellar cast of Martin Scorsese’s Oscar-winning Mob drama The Departed (2006).

Academy Awards History

With 12 Academy Award nominations (eight for Best Actor and four for Best Supporting Actor), Nicholson is the most nominated male actor in Academy Awards history. Only Nicholson (1960s-2000s), Michael Caine (1960s-2000s), Paul Newman (1950s-1960s, 1980s-2000s), and Laurence Olivier (1930s-1970s) have been nominated for an acting (lead or supporting) Academy Award in five decades. With three Oscar wins, he also ties with Walter Brennan, Daniel Day-Lewis, Ingrid Bergman, and Meryl Streep for the second-most Oscar wins in acting categories. Only Katharine Hepburn, with four Oscars, has won more. In 2013, Nicholson co-presented the Academy Award for Best Picture with first lady Michelle Obama. This ceremony marked the eighth time he has presented the Academy Award for Best Picture (1972, 1977, 1978, 1990, 1993, 2006, 2007, and 2013). Nicholson is an active and voting member of the Academy.

Refrences :

http://watchmojo.com/video/id/10863/

http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Jack_Nicholson.aspx

http://edition.cnn.com/2013/11/08/showbiz/celebrity-news-gossip/jack-nicholson-you-dont-know-jack/

http://www.jack-nicholson.info/biography/

Word count: 740

[Biography] Inspiration Helps Him Change The World

Nata Saputra

Paul David “Bono” Hewson, the lead singer of a rock band U2 (even though Bono prefers to call U2 a pop band for some reason) was born in Dublin, Ireland on May 10th 1960. The stage name Bono was originally ‘Steinhegvanhuysenolegbangbangbang,’ it evolved to ‘Bonavox of O’Connell Street’ after a hearing aid store in the centre of Dublin, before eventually being shortened to ‘Bonavox,’ ‘Bono Vox’ – silly Latin for ‘good voice’ – and finally ‘Bono.’ Furthermore, Bono himself likes the nick name because he always thinks that he sings like a girl. Some things even do not look so promising for him but unexpectedly, people like it. Bono believes that his music was inspired by his mother.

His mother died when he was 14 years old. It was very big for him to overcome the sadness, just like when he explained in an interview “I realized aged 14, when my mother suddenly passed away at her own father’s graveside, that I had a hole in my heart.” That was why he has often written about his mother’s death in U2 songs. It was like he was dealing with his own feelings on tracks which also meant the death of his mother inspired him indirectly to become a rock star. In an interview with The Sun newspaper, he mentioned that he didn’t know at the time, as he filled it with music. He became an artist through his mother’s absence and he owe his mother for that. Bono thought the rage he had was a part of rock ‘n’ roll but the rage was grief. The fact that the inspiration came from his mother can also be observed through many U2’s songs, especially of ther first album ‘Boy’ that was released in 1980.

In ‘I Will Follow’, Bono evidently wrote it to remind him of his mother because he said “It’s a song about unconditional love, which is what a mother has for her child. If you walk away, I will follow. No matter what you do, you cannot separate yourself from my love. Which echoes the scriptures: ‘nor from the love of God.’ It’s an amazing thing, but there’s a chill in it. I’m singing from a mother’s point of view.” Before the band started to play. This song is also the only song that U2 have performed on every tour since they released their first album which in my opinion means not only Bono, but the whole the band thinks that this song is something special for them.

Another example was when Bono expressed his grief of losing his mother is in the song called ‘Tomorrow’ Bono explained if the song was a great example of how people could write a song and not know what they were writing about. A song called ‘Tomorrow’ was a detailed account of his mother’s funeral, though he did not remember when he wrote it.

From the beginning of his time with U2 that he joined in 1976, he cultivated a reputation for being able to connect physically and emotionally with fans which I think would make him easier to use his music for another purposes, as an example activism.

Bono has long been involved in a variety of causes outside of U2. His work as an activist began in earnest, due largely to his Christian beliefs. Inspired by Live Aid, he traveled to Ethiopia to work in a feeding camp with his wife, Ali and the charity World Vision. Bono also went to Central America in 1985 to see the damage brought by US-backed operations in Nicaragua and El Salvador, after he and U2 toured as part of the Amnesty International which was a benefit tour, A Conspiracy of Hope.

In the 1990s, he campaigned with Greenpeace against the nuclear power plant Sellafield in the north of England, and drew attention to the conflict raging in Bosnia by collaborating with the US journalist Bill Carter during the Zoo TV tour to create the award-winning documentary, Miss Sarajevo.

In 2006, Bobby Shriver and Bono co-founded the Product (RED) campaign. This initiative seeks to persuade large companies with global brands to sell specific lines of products from which a portion of the profits will be donated to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and malaria.

Another great way that Bono had done to spread his ideas of an ideal world through his speech at the people that attended the concert was also a good idea because there would be thousands of people there, listening to him and hopefully be persuaded to make this world a better place.

References:

http://www.atu2.com/band/bono/

http://www.biography.com/people/bono-16257407

http://www.rollingstone.com/music/news/exclusive-bono-remembers-u2s-boy-20080804

http://ultimateclassicrock.com/bono-things/

http://www.irishcentral.com/culture/entertainment/Mothers-death-inspired-Bonos-U2-rock-star-success.html

http://www.atu2.com/news/u2-lists-4-ways-mom-is-muse-in-bonos-lyrics.html

http://www.rollingstone.com/music/news/exclusive-bono-remembers-u2s-boy-20080804

https://red.org/about/

Word Count: 762 Words

[Biography] Life Journey of Habibie

Mega Puspita Pandiangan

In this non-fiction essay I choose to write about B.J Habibie biography. B.J.Habibie is a popular man in Indonesia and almost the entire world because of the history of his life, so I am very excited telling about him. According to some researches that I’ve read, B.J Habibie in full name Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie was born in Pare-Pare, South Sulawesi, on June 25, 1936. He was the fourth child of eight siblings, spouse Alwi Abdul Jalil Habibie and RA. Tuti Marini Puspowardojo. Habibie passed his childhood with his brothers in Pare-Pare, South Sulawesi. As a child, Habibie liked swimming, reading, singing, riding his father’s racehorses, and building model airplanes.

The nature firmly adhered to the principle has been demonstrated Habibie since childhood. On 3 September 1950, when Habibie was 13 years old, his father suffered a heart attack and died. Shortly, after his father died, his mother sold their house and moved to Bandung. As a single parent, her mother worked hard to afford their life. Until he was in senior high school, Habibie showed his great achievement, especially in science subjects. In his school, he became a favorite student for teacher and his friends.

After he graduated from high school, he continued his study in Bandung Institute of Technology (now ITB). During his study in ITB, he looking for scholarship and finally he got a scholarship from the government to study abroad. Then, he continued his study in Germany. At the Technische Hochschule of Aachen, Habibie studied aircraft construction engineering. When he arrived in Germany, he determined to be successful because he remembered the struggle of his parents to afford his course cost and his daily life.

Several years later, in 1955, almost all of the Indonesian students got full scholarship. He was the only one who held green passport among his friends. For Habibie, holiday season is not holiday because he used the time for work and study. That was a gold chance to make money for buying books and having examination. After holiday, all activities were suspended, except studying. So we know that he didn’t have time relax or playing with his friends. After with the struggle in his study, finally he received his Diploma from the Technische Hochschule, Germany in 1960 with cumlaude predicate with average score 9.5 and then getting Doctorate from the same place in 1965. Habibie was also the first Asian person who had high position in plane industry of Germany.

On May 12, 1962 on a visit home to Indonesia, he was married to a doctor, Hasri Ainun Besari. After the wedding ceremony, he brought Ainun to Germany and was blessed with two sons namely Akbar and Thareq Kemal and was both born in Germany.

After graduating with a doctoral degree from the Aachen Institute in 1965, Habibie joined the aircraft manufacturing firm Messerschmitt-Boelkow-Bluhm, rising to the rank of vice-president. As a research scientist and aeronautical engineer, he helped design several planes, including the DO-31, an innovative vertical takeoff and landing craft. He specialized in solutions for aircraft cracking, gaining the nickname “Mr. Crack” as one of the first scientists to calculate the dynamics of random crack propagation. He also became involved in international aircraft marketing activities and NATO’s defense and economic development.

In 1974, Suharto recruited Habibie to return to Indonesia as a part of Suharto’s drive to industrialize and develop the country. Habibie jump-started an aircraft construction industry and a state airline company. Soon he became Suharto’s chief advisor for high-technology development. Habibie exploited the relationships he had developed in Germany and NATO to engineer a myriad of controversial deals involving aircraft, ships, heavy industry, and economic development.

When he came back to Indonesia, he applied his knowledge and experiences that he got during his life in Germany to build plane industry in Indonesia. After three years he lived in Indonesia, he got Professor Title from ITB. Then, he became the minister of research and technology for 20 years. On March 11, 1998, Habibie was elected as the 7th vice president of Indonesia by the decision of parliamentary session.

In 1993 he unveiled the first Indonesian-developed plane, which he helped design, and in the following year he launched a plan to refurbish more than three dozen vessels bought from the former East German navy at his initiative. Meanwhile, in 1990 Habibie was appointed head of the Indonesian Muslim Intellectuals Association, and during the 1993 central-board elections of the country’s ruling party, Golkar. Habibie helped the children and allies of President Suharto rise to top positions, easing out long-standing military-backed power brokers. By the late 1990s Habibie was viewed as one of several possible successors to the aging Suharto.

In March 1998 Suharto appointed Habibie to the vice presidency, and two months later, in the wake of large-scale violence in Jakarta, Suharto announced his resignation. Thrust unexpectedly into the country’s top position, Habibie immediately began to implement major reforms. He appointed a new cabinet; fired Suharto’s eldest daughter as social affairs minister as well as his longtime friend as trade and industry minister; named a committee to draft less-restrictive political laws; allowed a free press; arranged for free parliamentary and presidential elections the following year; and agreed to presidential term limits (two five-year terms). He also granted amnesty to more than 100 political prisoners.

In 1999 Habibie announced that East Timor, a former Portuguese colony that had been invaded by Indonesia in 1975, could choose between special autonomy and independence; the territory chose independence. Indonesia held free general elections (the first since 1955) in June, as promised. Later that year Habibie ran for president, but he withdrew his candidacy shortly before the October election, which was won by Abdurahman Wahid. After Wahid took office, Habibie essentially stepped out of politics, although in 2000 he
established the Habibie center, a political research institute.

References:

· http://www.britannica.com/biography/B-J-Habibie

· http://biography.yourdictionary.com/bacharuddin-jusuf-habibie

· http://www.ib-article.com/2012/08/biography-bj-habibie.html

Word count: 971 words

[Biography] Jokowi in Biography

Alfiansisca A.E.H

Ir. H. Joko Widodo who is more commonly known as Jokowi. Born in Surakarta, Central Java, on June 21, 1961. Jokowi is the eldest son of his father Noto Mihardjo and his mother Sujiatmi Notomihardjo. He is the oldest son from four children, and the rest are his younger sisters. Jokowi came from a family that is unpretentious. However, with his own hard-work, Jokowi can achieve his success until now he serves as the seventh President. Joko Widodo attended primary school to intermediate educational institution in the city of Solo, Central Java. When he started school in the elementary school he had worked as kuli panggul, ojek payung and while trading to help with the cost of his education and for daily needs. When he’s 12 years old, Jokowi has been working as a tukang gergaji, a skilled job taught by his father Noto Mihardjo. And then, his thoughts of leadership and the toughness of life formed.

Graduated from primary school, he continued at SMPN 1 Surakarta, SMAN 6 Surakarta. And later on continue studying at one of the leading universities in Yogyakarta, Department of Forestry and Gajah Mada University. In there, he was very keen to learn about the wood, processing methods and the benefits. Jokowi completed his studies in 1985. After finishing from college, he continued to work at one of the companies named PT. Kraft Aceh. But he didn’t last long and he chose to continue the furniture business owned by his family which is located in the town of Sragen, Solo, Central Java. Not long, Jokowi has been working in his furniture business, he has already received a lot of benefits.

In 1986 he was married to Mrs. Hj. Iriana Joko Widodo on December 24 and they have three children from his marriage Gibran Rakabuming, Kaesang Pangarep and Kahiyang Ayu. He started the furniture business in Solo, Central Java. He came to work in a furniture company belonging to his uncle. He has got a lot of experience from his job, Jokowi brave his selves to open his own furniture business in 1988, which was given the name CV. Rakabu. Inspirate by his child name. 2-year in a new business, Jokowi already felt wobbly and nearly bankrupt. But he ventured to borrow money from his mother and he rose again to lead a CV furniture business Rakabu. Jokowi started many timber orders from domestic to overseas, because he’s diligent, honest, and hardworking.

Jokowi was appointed as mayor of Solo in 2005 until 2012. He’s nominated by PDI-P and PKB. But he has not a lot of experience in politics, yet he own a lot of achievements during his activities that he did as mayor of Solo. And Solo becomes more comfortable and look tidier in the structuring of the city. From there, Jokowi is known to the society, especially in the city of Solo, that he’s a humble figure with all his achievements.

From his success, Vice President Jusuf Kalla asked Jokowi to run as Governor of Jakarta. To become a governor is not very easy. There are many rivalries that will be faced. One of which is the competition between political parties become more aggressive. From the hard-work that he did, eventually Jokowi won the election in the second around having served as Governor of Jakarta in 2012-2014. Jokowi has many visions that he will follow up during the first campaign. After being elected Governor he began one by one to work on his projects, such as improving irrigation, arrangement of street vendors, as well as improving transportation problem in capital city of Jakarta. He also made a policy such as, making a health-insurance card for healthier Jakarta, Jakarta Smart cards for education, improving the transportation system, and the reduction of bureaucracy nepotism in Jakarta with the auction system office.

After he served as Governor, he gets busier with positive activities that he does, until the society is proud to have the Governor of Jakarta like Jokowi. Jokowi’s popularity is high that everyone is sure he will rose to the top as the President. Because of that, the Ex-President Megawati who was in the PDI-P asked Jokowi to run as President with his partner, Jusuf Kalla. Advancement of Jokowi as President was supported by four parties, PDI-P, Nasdem, Hanura and Kebangkitan Bangsa. Finally, in July 2014 Jokowi officially becomes the 7th President.

Jokowi was inaugurated as President on October 20, 2014 in the DPR/MPR RI. After he was inaugurated, Jokowi started moving what he had planned previously. Starting from the card Indonesia sehat, Indonesia pintar. In the territorial waters of Indonesia, especially in the field of maritime Jokowi gives instructions to the fish thieves. In addition, Jokowi cares for the development projects by dividing more than 1,000 tractors in order to improve agricultural production. However, there is a policy in protest by many people, caused by the rising price of fuel (fuel oil). Regardless of many people who don’t agree with it, Jokowi is rated as a leading figure who brings a lot of progress, both when he served as mayor of Solo and Jakarta Governor.

References:

http://www.profilpedia.com/2014/05/profil-dan-biografi-joko-widodo-biodata-jokowi.html

http://www.biografiku.com/2012/02/biografi-joko-widodo-jokowi.html

Word count:

851 words